Download 3-D structural geology : a practical guide for surface and by Richard H. Groshong PDF

By Richard H. Groshong

The e-book contains new fabric, specifically examples of three-D types and strategies for utilizing kinematic types to foretell fault and ramp-anticline geometry. The booklet is aimed toward the pro consumer keen on the accuracy of an interpretation and the rate with which it may be received from incomplete info. a number of analytical options are on condition that will be simply applied with a pocket calculator or a spreadsheet.

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Bed or vein) disrupted by a fault, measured in any specified direction (Dennis 1967). The separation directions commonly important in mapping are parallel to fault strike, parallel to fault dip, horizontal, vertical and perpendicular to bedding. It should be noted that the definitions of the terms for fault separation and the components of separation are not always used consistently in the literature. Stratigraphic separation (Fig. 31) is the thickness of strata that originally separated two beds brought into contact at a fault (Bates and Jackson 1987) and is the stratigraphic thickness missing or repeated at the point, called the fault cut (Tearpock and Bischke 2003), where the fault is intersected.

A Unit of constant thickness. b Unit of variable thickness Fig. 12. Regions of uniform dip properties. a Dip domains. b Concentric domains separated by a planar dip domain (shaded) 9 10 Chapter 1 · Elements of Map-Scale Structure implications that are not necessarily appropriate for every structure. An axial surface (Fig. 12a) is a surface that connects fold hinge lines, where a hinge line is a line of maximum curvature on the surface of a bed (Dennis 1967). A hinge (Fig. 12a) is the intersection of a hinge line with the cross section.

In a cylindrical fold every straight line on the folded surface is parallel to the axis. The geometry of a cylindrical fold persists unchanged along the axis as long as the axis remains straight. A conical fold is generated by a straight line rotated through a fixed point called the vertex (Fig. 18b). The cone axis is not parallel to any line on the cone itself. A conical fold changes geometry and terminates along the trend of the cone axis. The crest line is the trace of the line which joins the highest points on successive cross sections through a folded surface (Figs.

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