By Gordon Martel
A significant other to Europe 1900-1945 ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ, ИСТОРИЯ Издательство: Blackwell Publishing LtdСерия: Blackwell partners to eu historyАвтор(ы): Gordon MartelЯзык: EnglishГод издания: 2006Количество страниц: 587ISBN: 978-1-4051-0664-1Формат: pdf (e-book)Размер: 4,35 mb RAPIDили IFOLDER zero
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Extra info for A Companion to Europe 1900-1945
Ideologically, the Entente was hampered by the reality of the tsarist autocracy, and once that regime collapsed, a consistent position on the future shape of Europe was easier to arrive at. Thus, while the possibility of dismantling the “national” German state was never entertained seriously at Paris in 1919, the Habsburg Empire appeared to have disintegrated on its own accord, largely along “national” lines and therefore could be – needed to be – restructured on the basis of the principle of nationality.
Certainly it was here during the 1930s that it assumed its most extreme form, but it had a long genesis. At the same time as the welfare legislation of the 1880s was being introduced, a vociferous lobby argued that the biological laws of natural selection should be allowed to function freely. Between 1890 and 1930 the influence of those advocating biological purity – Rassenhygiene – grew. The defeat of World War I arguably provided a turning point, with eugenics henceforth seen as a promising means via which to reinvigorate the German people, and the economic crisis of 1929 bolstered the view that the existing welfare apparatus was unsustainable.
15 In Scandinavia a focus on mental health issues led to sterilization legislation in Denmark (1929) and in Sweden (1934 and 1941). In Finland, 2,000 people were compulsorily sterilized between 1935 and 1955. It can be seen, therefore, that social conditions and public responses to social problems were very mixed in Europe during the period 1900–45. ” This non-productive residuum, and indeed the urban poor in general, were routinely linked to crime in this period, and developments in the area of crime and policing form the subject of the next section.