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By Louis F. Burns

Strains four hundred years of Osage tradition from prehistoric occasions to the group's present prestige as an formally famous tribe.Osage conventional lands can be found in mid-continental the United States encompassed via the present-day states of Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma. significant waterways via those lands and the defensible terrain of the Ozark diversity supplied the tribe a different virtue in prehistoric and early ancient instances. A warlike humans, the Osage lengthy encroached on neighboring tribal lands, particularly these of the Caddo to the southwest. but strong ordinary limitations and centuries of good fortune in conflict afforded the tribe little virtue in makes an attempt to stop Euro-American westward enlargement. 3 significant routes to the West—the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers and the Continental Trail—crossed Osage land, so clash with the rookies used to be inevitable.Louis Burns attracts on ancestral oral traditions and examine in a vast physique of literature to inform the tale of the Osage humans. He writes in actual fact and concisely, from the Osage point of view. First released in 1989 and for a few years out of print, this revised version is augmented through a brand new preface and maps. as a result of its masterful compilation and synthesis of the identified information, A background of the Osage humans is still the easiest reference for info on an immense American Indian people.Louis F. Burns, of Osage-French-Scottish background, is a member of the Mottled Eagle extended family and writer of six books, together with Symbolic and ornamental artwork of the Osage humans.

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A History of the Osage People

Strains four hundred years of Osage tradition from prehistoric instances to the group's present prestige as an formally famous tribe. Osage conventional lands can be found in mid-continental the United States encompassed by means of the present-day states of Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma. significant waterways via those lands and the defensible terrain of the Ozark diversity supplied the tribe a special virtue in prehistoric and early ancient occasions.

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In the battle of Saratoga, Benedict Arnold and Daniel Morgan, with only a brigade and one ri®e company, defeated General James Burgoyne’s army at Freeman’s farm during the American Revolution. These are only two examples of how rough terrain can enable a small force to repel a large force. An invading military force is always at a disadvantage in terrain such as the Ozarks. Utilization of the Ozark terrain gave the Osages security from an invading force large enough to in®ict severe damage upon them.

They are always the ultimate source of solutions. It is pure belief, but to us this suggests the Wa sha she were Adena people. In later stories the Tsi shu become the dominant group, and this seems to indicate they were from one of the later Woodland cultures, possibly Hopewell or Mississippian. Both the Wa sha she and Tsi shu were more inclined toward peace than the Hun ka. This is not to say they did not make war, but that they tended to seek peaceful solutions in preference to warfare. The Hun ka always chose warfare as a solution to problems.

At the southwest edge of the Osage domain were the Southern Cheyenne. In the Texas Panhandle, the Comanche barred Osage expansion. To the west were the Kiowa and Apache of the Plains (Lipan Apache). Bluff war was not very effective against any of these people. Like the Osage, they had a long tradition as hunters, and they were experienced in warfare. When the Osages went to war against these people they customarily wore black paint. Both black and red symbolized the merciless ¤re that consumed all in its path.

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