By Duncan Templeton and David Saunders (Auth.)
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Extra info for Acoustic Design
12 Schematic representation of a condenser microphone. Microphone (Briiel and Kjaer) 1 2 3 4 Diaphragm Backplate Mica isolation Pressure equalising vent Properties of sound 35 Choosing a microphone A wide variety of different condenser microphones is available and when choosing the most appropriate, consideration should be given to the range of frequencies and sound levels to be measured, the nature of the sound field and the environment in which it is to operate. Sound fields Response of a microphone is influenced by reflection and refraction caused by the presence of the microphone in the sound field.
Microphone characteristics In general microphone characteristics are given in terms of the free field, pressure, or random incidence response and reference is made to free field, pressure, or random incidence type microphones. It should be realised that any microphone has a free field response, a pressure response and a random incidence response and is named after those of its responses the manufacturer has arranged to be nearly flat as a function of frequency. Freefieldmicrophone A free field microphone is designed to compensate for the disturbance caused by its own presence in the sound field and is designed to give a flat frequency response to sound waves arriving normal to its diaphragm.
2dB. 2dB and 70dB. 6dB. 15 Graph to be used for the addition of sound pressure levelsfromtwo incoherent sources. - ! i \ 1 c I ! j ! i i i ! i j. _ . -i - - -i - — - : ! _ Ì ! 1 i j\ ! \ ! ! Λν i | ! 1! !! M I M M I ! j ! i i i ! i j i ■ I 1 1 I I I I : I ; 1 | ; ; I ! ! i i : i | ί : 1 j InJJ ! 1 5 * i ! I i 10 ! 1 1 i 15 Difference between levels (dB) Reducing number of sound sources A final point, which is often difficult for people not familiar with decibels to appreciate, is the effect on the sound pressure level of reducing the number of sources operating.