By Frederick W. Alt
Advances in Immunology, a original and hugely revered booklet, provides present advancements in addition to finished studies in immunology. Articles tackle the big variety of subject matters that contain immunology, together with molecular and mobile activation mechanisms, phylogeny and molecular evolution, and medical modalities. Edited and authored via the main scientists within the box, every one quantity offers up to date info and instructions for the future.
* Contributions from major professionals * Informs and updates on the entire most up-to-date advancements within the box
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Additional resources for Advances in Immunology
2013) proposes that K63-linked and linear ubiquitin chains cooperatively work together to modify the signaling molecules in IL-1R/TLR4 pathway including MyD88 and IRAK4 through assembling either K63-linked/linear hybrid ubiquitin chains or interaction between same proteins. , 2011). Another alternate ubiquitin chainmediated regulation of IKK activation in IL-1R signaling has been revealed by recent biochemical studies. , 2009). Future study will be needed to demonstrate the precise working mechanism and in vivo role of unanchored polyubiquitin chains in IKK–NF-κB activation pathway.
2011). However, lack of CYLD showed impaired Treg function with reduced expression of CD25 and CTLA4, which are key 30 Yoon Park et al. 2 The ubiquitin system regulates the differentiation of T helper cells. (A) Naïve T cells differentiate into Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in response to TGFβ and IL-2. Both Cbl-b and CYLD regulate TGFβ signaling through Foxo1/3a and Smad7, respectively. The stability of Foxp3 is maintained by deubiquitinase USP7, whereas Foxp3 can be reduced by E3 ubiquitin ligase Stub1.
Unlikely Ubc13 À/À Tregs, Itch À/À Tregs promote Th2-biased pathology by gaining the additional ability, such as producing inflammatory cytokines without losing Foxp3. This conversion is reversible because effector T cells can undergo the conversion into Treg or vice versa. The F-box protein S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) is an essential component of Skp–Cullin–F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex and is involved in the conversion between Treg and effector T cells. , 2012). Skp2 was able to regulate cell cycle regulators (p21 and p27) and Foxo proteins.