By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber
This quantity is the 3rd of a suite of 7 concerning photovoltaics. sun cell-related applied sciences coated the following comprise: ribbon silicon; heterojunction crystalline silicon; wafer identical crystalline silicon; and different complex silicon sun phone constructions and processes.
Semiconductors and Semimetals has extraordinary itself during the cautious collection of famous authors, editors, and individuals. initially widely recognized because the "Willardson and Beer" sequence, it has succeeded in publishing quite a few landmark volumes and chapters. The sequence publishes well timed, hugely appropriate volumes meant for long term effect and reflecting the actually interdisciplinary nature of the sector. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals were and may remain of significant curiosity to physicists, chemists, fabrics scientists, and equipment engineers in academia, medical laboratories and smooth industry.
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Additional resources for Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 3,
19 Standard processing scheme for homogeneous emitter solar cells (right), with extra steps to be added for various selective emitter (SE) approaches. 45 State-of-the-Art Industrial Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells implantation and forms a thin SiO2 layer on the wafer surface acting as surface passivation. The process continues with SiNx:H deposition. Advantages of this approach are the dry processing for emitter formation, the lack of PSG formation (which normally has to be removed wet chemically) and of junction isolation, as the emitter is formed only on the front side.
The resulting profile (depth, peak surface concentration, and Rsheet) can be tailored through laser pulse energy density. This technology adds only one step and is commercialized by Manz. , 2010). , 2010). The liquid contains P atoms serving as P-source and heavy doping is reached after recrystallization of the molten Si. , via Ni and Ag. Only one extra step is added and plating allows for thinner, highly conductive grid lines compared to screen-printed contacts. , 2008). , phosphoric acid deposited on the wafer prior to laser 49 State-of-the-Art Industrial Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells doping.
Via evaporation of Ag directly on c-Si n+ emitters. Typical values for contact resistance of screen-printed Ag on c-Si are 1–10 mΩ cm2 (Schubert, 2006), while values for evaporated contacts are in the range of 100–200 μΩ cm2 (Fischer, 1994). 2 Rear side metallization For rear side metallization, Al containing pastes containing Al powder, glass frit, organic binders, and solvents are used. , expensive Ag does not play a role as long as the contact is formed on the full area rear side. 14 Schematic contact formation for Ag screen-printing on n++ emitters.