By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber
Advances in Photovoltaics: Part Four offers helpful details at the demanding situations confronted throughout the transformation of our power offer process to extra effective, renewable energies.
The quantity discusses the subject from a world point of view, featuring the most recent details on photovoltaics, a cornerstone technology.
It covers all features of this crucial semiconductor know-how, reflecting at the great and dynamic advances which were made in this subject considering 1975, whilst the 1st publication on sun cells-written by way of Harold J. Hovel of IBM-was released as quantity eleven within the now well-known sequence on Semiconductors and Semimetals.
Readers will achieve a backstage examine the continual and fast medical improvement that results in the required expense and price discount rates in worldwide business mass-production.
- Written by way of best, across the world identified specialists on his topic
- Provides an in-depth evaluation of the present prestige and views of skinny movie PV technologies
- Discusses the demanding situations confronted in the course of the transformation of our strength provide method to extra effective, renewable energies
- Delves deep into photovoltaics, a cornerstone technolog
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Extra resources for Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 4,
6 In the case of FZ growth, it will be seen immediately, too, but due to the growth setup, melting back is impossible. Silicon Crystallization Technologies 31 – Crucible corrosion results in a flaking off of quartz glass which might stick to the growth interface. For sure, there are many other reasons not listed here, but it becomes clear that the growth of single crystals by the Cz method does not allow many compromises and shortcuts. And, it requires skilled operators. Figure 14 shows an 800 ingot for the production of 156 Â 156 mm2 pseudosquare p-type wafers.
2012). The shift of the solid–liquid interface is managed by variations of the heater power of the different heating elements. Graphite heaters operated by resistance heating are the standard configuration. Induction heating models are more an exotic variation. The amount of carbon in the system is reduced in Silicon Crystallization Technologies 39 case of induction heating, but specific graphite parts are still required, like the susceptor or the insulation material. In any case, induction heating bears a certain risk of water spilling since the copper tubes have to be watercooled.
Com/en/products/crystal-growing-systems/ pva/cz—equipment/active-crystal-cooling). The axial position is some 20–50 cm above the solid–liquid interface. Since the optical access to the meniscus area is mandatory for diameter control, there is a limited degree of freedom with respect to positioning of the water-cooling system. According to the manufacturer, the active cooling might increase the pulling velocity by 20–40%. Obviously, inserting a water-cooled system into the hot zone and in particular within the proximity of liquid silicon bears a certain risk.