Download Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism by James K. Hoffmeier PDF

By James K. Hoffmeier

Pharaoh Akhenaten, who reigned for seventeen years within the fourteenth century B.C.E, is likely one of the so much exciting rulers of old Egypt. His peculiar visual appeal and his preoccupation with worshiping the solar disc Aten have inspired educational dialogue and controversy for greater than a century. regardless of the various books and articles approximately this enigmatic determine, many questions on Akhenaten and the Atenism faith stay unanswered.
In Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism, James okay. Hoffmeier argues that Akhenaten used to be no longer, as is usually stated, a thorough advocating a brand new faith yet fairly a primitivist: that's, one that reaches again to a golden age and emulates it. Akhenaten's suggestion was once the previous nation (2650-2400 B.C.E.), while the sun-god Re/Atum governed because the unequalled head of the Egyptian pantheon. Hoffmeier reveals that Akhenaten used to be a real convert to the worship of Aten, the only author God, according to the Pharoah's personal testimony of a theophany, a divine come across that introduced his monotheistic spiritual odyssey.
The publication additionally explores the Atenist religion's attainable dating to Israel's faith, providing a detailed comparability of the hymn to the Aten to Psalm 104, which has been pointed out via students as stimulated via the Egyptian hymn.
Through a cautious analyzing of key texts, works of art, and archaeological stories, Hoffmeier offers compelling new insights on a faith that predated Moses and Hebrew monotheism, the effect of Atenism on Egyptian faith and politics, and the aftermath of Akhenaten's reign.

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Extra info for Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism

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Erny�, The Inscriptions of Sinai I, II. 111 Khnum-Khufu is the full name of Khufu, the builder of the great pyramid at Giza. 112 Gardiner, Peet, & J. Černy�, The Inscriptions of Sinai I, pl. II, III. A photograph is included in A. H. Gardiner, T. E. Peet, & J. Černy�, The Inscriptions of Sinai II (London: Egypt Exploration Society, 1955), pl. I. 107 108 When the Sun Ruled Egypt 23 circular cartouche). Both symbols are shown on the different depictions of Horus in the Djoser panels introduced above.

12 Sphinx Stela of Thutmose IV (Giza). Photo James K. Hoffmeier. These two 18th Dynasty stelae clearly associate the sphinx with his various solar forms. Moreover, the link between the pharaoh and Atum as the son of Re is firmly re-established, showing the continuity of the tradition that goes back a thousand years earlier. The Sun-Disc Reliefs of the king in action with vulture, falcon, or the sun-disc hovering overhead to represent the presence and protection of the deity are a staple of New Kingdom royal art.

23 He pushed Theban control north to include Abydos (the Thinite Nome). 24 Clearly, the sacred city of Abydos was a site whose control was desired for historical, religious, and political reasons by both the south and the north. Meryibre’s allusions to the fighting at Abydos are a testimony to that desire. Historians generally agree that under the reign of the later 11th Dynasty Theban king Montuhotep II, Egypt was reunited politically after a period of war, thus ending the 1st Intermediate Period and ushering in the Middle Kingdom.

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