Download Alexandra: The Last Tsarina by Carolly Erickson PDF

By Carolly Erickson

Profiting from fabric unavailable until eventually the autumn of the Soviet Union, this biography of Alexandra, the final tsarina, explores: her youth bereavement; her lengthy fight to achieve her romantic target of marriage to Nicholas; the ache of her pathological shyness; the struggles together with her in-laws; a fake being pregnant; her expanding eccentricities as she turned extra preoccupied with concerns of religion; and her starting to be dependence on a chain of occult mentors, the main infamous of whom was once Rasputin.

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The proposed marriage between Prince Valdemar of Denmark, son of Christian IV, and Czarevna Irene, daughter of Czar Michael Romanov, failed to take place because of the strong stand of the Russian Church against Protestants. The Russians insisted that Valdemar must be rebaptized before the marriage. In 1644 and 1645 Orthodox and Lutheran Church leaders held several discussions at Moscow to determine whether or not the Lutherans were actually Christians. The Lutherans defended the validity of their baptism, but the Muscovites rejected it.

Esther was translated from the He brew; and several books, such as Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Tobit, were translated from the Vulgate. Each book was pro vided with a preface, partly taken from the Vulgate and partly from the German Bible. Anxious for a literal translation, Gen nadius frequently obscured the text and even forced an arbitrary interpretation. He was, nevertheless, an accomplished writer; and in his other works where he was not bound by the task of literal translation he wrote well in a very colorful and clear Russian of his time.

While Saint Joseph filled his rule with many details of monastic administration and discipline, he said relatively little about prayer. Saint Nilus, on the other hand, made prayer the /principal subject of his treatise. Influenced undoubtedly by the Hesychasts of Mt. Athos, a school of mystics, who devoted them selves to contemplation of Deity, Saint Nilus taught that mental prayer, particularly the prayer of Jesus, is superior to vocal prayer. External works, he said, mean little or nothing without inner perfection.

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