By Fred Kraus
The conservation danger posed through invasive alien species has turn into well-recognized during the last twenty years, at the same time the matter maintains to extend swiftly in scope. study and administration consciousness to this factor has, besides the fact that, been taxonomically biased towards teams having huge, seen affects, and the invasive power of alternative organisms with refined or cryptic affects continues to be mostly unassessed. Alien reptiles and amphibians, even supposing offering some of the better-known examples of critical invasion affects, have by no means been scientifically assessed as a gaggle for his or her power invasiveness. This booklet examines the capability wherein alien reptiles and amphibians are transported by way of people; surveys their ecological, evolutionary, financial, and well-being affects; stories the administration responses taken opposed to them; and summarizes the fast learn and administration efforts had to mitigate the risk posed by way of those organisms. It additionally offers a accomplished database of herpetofaunal introductions around the world and a bibliography of assisting literature; the database can be supplied on CD-ROM with a purpose to facilitate use of the information via researchers. the aim of the booklet is to summarize our present figuring out of herpetofaunal invasiveness and stimulate extra administration and examine actions had to lessen the affects of those species.
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Additional info for Alien Reptiles and Amphibians: a Scientific Compendium and Analysis (Invading Nature - Springer Series in Invasion Ecology)
How successful are alien reptiles and amphibians at establishing populations in the new regions to which they have been transported, and what factors might explain this success? These are the very basic questions that need to be answered if the phenomenon of reptile and amphibian invasion and its dependence on human behavior are to be understood. A quantitative analysis of these questions is typically referred to as a “pathway analysis” because it assesses the details of how and why species are transported by humans.
Is it mainly the result of intentional actions liable to easy personal control, or an accidental phenomenon of human actions having statistically probable outcomes? Have the mechanisms of introduction been stable through time or varied? Are the same mechanisms important everywhere, or do pathways differ in importance geographically? How successful are alien reptiles and amphibians at establishing populations in the new regions to which they have been transported, and what factors might explain this success?
3. Second, some of those families showing highest success rates do so for unique reasons that do not make them representative. As one example, 32 2 Introduction Patterns Fig. 6 Distribution frequency of minimum number of introduction events among species. 2 Numbers of introduction events per taxonomic family. Family numbers correspond to those of Fig. 7 Family number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Number of Family introductions Emydidae 2,108 Gekkonidae 503 Ranidae 471 Iguanidae 343 Colubridae 302 Hylidae 241 Bufonidae 154 Testudinidae 153 Lacertidae 148 Geoemydidae 127 Leptodactylidae 103 Pythonidae 86 Scincidae 86 Boidae 84 Typhlopidae 81 Trionychidae 71 Salamandridae 68 Plethodontidae 53 Viperidae 53 Chelydridae 50 Alligatoridae 45 Agamidae 43 Chamaeleontidae 43 Pipidae 37 Ambystomatidae 36 Family number 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Family Elapidae Varanidae Teidae Bombinatoridae Microhylidae Pelomedusidae Chelidae Proteidae Discoglossidae Anguidae Kinosternidae Myobatrachidae Alytidae Cordylidae Crocodylidae Rhacophoridae Cryptobranchidae Gymnophthalmidae Helodermatidae Pygopodidae Amphisbaenidae Pelobatidae Acrochordidae Dendrobatidae Leptotyphlopidae Number of introductions 34 30 22 16 15 15 14 13 12 9 8 8 7 7 7 6 5 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 Taxonomic Variation 33 Fig.