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By Alison R. Bernstein

The impression of worldwide warfare II on Indian affairs was once extra profound and lasting than that of the other occasion or policy--including Roosevelt’s Indian New Deal and efforts to terminate federal accountability for tribes less than Eisenhower. concentrating on the interval from 1941 to 1947, Alison R. Bernstein explains why termination and tribal self-determination have been logical result of the Indians’ international battle II reports in conflict and at the domestic entrance.

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Collier set aside wilderness areas for exclusive Indian use. When the Flathead Indians were in danger of losing their right to develop a power site on their land, Collier obtained an interview with Attorney General Homer Cummings and pressed him to investigate the claims of the non-Indian Montana Power company to develop the site. He also aided the Crow and the Sioux in their efforts to obtain buffalo from the National Park Service. 61 The Department of Agriculture served Indians during the depression through the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, which made nearly $1 million available to Indian farmers to purchase purebred cattle.

After finishing their training, the vast majority returned to the land. Finding no industrial work of the kind they were trained to do, they went on relief. 55 By and large, these camps were located on Indian-held lands. Another federally supported vocation for Indian high school graduates was a job in the Indian service itself. In 1933 there were several hundred permanent Indian employees in the Indian service. 56 Education and labor experts pointed to a number of possible explanations for the failure of reservation Indians to secure work off the reservation.

6 Collier made a similar argument in a formal letter that he drafted and that Acting Secretary of the Interior Willard Wirtz sent to the War Department, requesting separate Indian training units. " 7 In contrast to policies governing black inductees, the War Department favored the integration of Indians into white units. Therefore, Collier had lost in his bid for a BIA-controlled Indian division. Meanwhile, the bureau was discovering that it had its hands full trying to get less acculturated and more isolated Indians to register for the draft.

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