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By Paul Josephson, Nicolai Dronin, Ruben Mnatsakanian, Aleh Cherp, Dmitry Efremenko, Vladislav Larin

The previous Soviet empire spanned 11 time zones and contained part the world's forests; huge deposits of oil, gasoline, and coal; numerous ores; significant rivers reminiscent of the Volga, Don, and Angara; and broad biodiversity. those assets and animals, in addition to the folks who lived within the former Soviet Union - Slavs, Armenians, Georgians, Azeris, Kazakhs and Tajiks, indigenous Nenets and Chukchi - have been threatened by way of environmental degradation and large toxins. This environmental historical past of the previous Soviet Union explores the impression that nation fiscal improvement courses had at the atmosphere. The authors contemplate the impression of Bolshevik ideology at the institution of an intensive approach of nature preserves, the impression of Stalinist practices of industrialization and collectivization on nature, and the increase of public involvement less than Khrushchev and Brezhnev, and adjustments to rules and practices with the increase of Gorbachev and the break-up of the USSR.

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Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002). 44 An Environmental History of Russia Alexander II emancipated the serfs in 1861, but through a series of stipulations concerning the distribution, tenure, and ownership of the land and membership in existing peasant communes, the peasant remained tied to the land and his village and to small, narrow parcels of land. He had to repay the government loans provided to him to acquire the land that he thought he should be given outright. This left him constantly in debt.

Indeed, the nobility, imperial family, and other private landowners controlled more than one-third of the nation’s land, leaving 75 percent of the population to farm the rest of the land in much smaller holdings. In a word, the emancipation did little to change production practices. World War I and the Russian Revolution immediately altered this situation, with estate farming losing its labor to the army at the beginning of the war and with violent peasant confiscations and the revolution itself completing the process.

Petersburg: St. Petersburg University Izdatel’stvo, 2004); and A. A. Grigor’ev, Prirodnye Sviatyni (St. Petersburg: Obrazovanie, 1997). See also Ol’ga Yur’evna Elina, Ot Tsarskikh Sadov do Sovetskikh Polei: Istoriia Sel’sko-Khoziaistvennykh Opytnykh Uchrezhdenii XVIII-20-e gody XX v. 2 vol. (Moscow: IIEiT RAN, 2008). 30 An Environmental History of Russia of the eighteenth century, he contributed to a widening schism between Old Believers and a more modern church that had joined forces with the autocracy.

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