By Patrick Saint-Dizier
This e-book is an creation to Prolog (£rQgramming in ~ic). It provides the elemental foundations of Prolog and simple and primary programming equipment. This ebook is written for programmers acquainted with different programming languages, in addition to for newcomers in desktop technological know-how, prepared to have an unique advent to programming. The strategy followed during this booklet is hence in accordance with methodological parts including a few pragmatic elements. The e-book consists of 2 components. within the fIrst half the main features of programming in Prolog are provided step-by-step. every one new element is illustrated by means of brief examples and routines. the second one half consists of extra constructed examples, that are usually video games, that illustrate significant facets of synthetic intelligence. extra complicated books are given within the bibliography and should enable the reader to deepen his or her comprehend ledge of Prolog. Prolog used to be first designed in France at OJ.A., Marseille, with a particular syntax. we now have followed right here a extra universal notation, outlined at Edinburgh, which has a tendency to be an implicit norm. on the finish of every bankruptcy of the 1st half, there are workouts that the reader is invited to do and to check on his or her computer. whole solutions are given in Appendix A, on the finish of the book.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Programming in Prolog
3. Execution Order of Clauses in a Procedure Theoretically, the order of clauses in a procedure is unimportant. This is, however, no longer true when, for reasons of efficiency, we wish to influence Prolog's internal control. In this case we must pay careful attention to the order of the Clauses. This idea is developed further when we deal with suppressing the remaining choices. From an operational point of view, when a procedure is called, Prolog executes the clauses one after another, starting with the frrst (a completely arbitrary choice, but a necessary one when using sequential machines).
Flight(X,_,_,_,Z,_), Z >= 1400. - fIight(X,_,montreal,_,Z,P), Z=<1700, P>100. Note the use of two selection constraints in question (e). The two possible orders in which these constraints may be given are logically equivalent. In terms of the time the query takes to execute, the order of the constraints may lead to slight differences in efficiency. In order to concentrate as soon as possible on likely solutions, it is better to place the most restrictive constraint fIrst. This enables us to reduce the amount of backtracking Prolog does while finding the solutions.
Fiight(X,_,_,D,A,_), A - D >200. More complex examples are given in the chapter devoted to deductive databases. The concepts of lists and recursion, however, need to be introduced fU'St. Chapter 6 Procedures We now introduce a very interesting peculiarity of Prolog: the ability to define several rules (or clauses) with the same head. This technique allows us to state independently different possible ways of proving a goal, when several ways exist. 1. The Problem We hope to defme the rule max(X,Y,R) which binds R to the larger of two numbers X and Y.